Chesley Bonestell, “The Exploration of Mars” (1953), oil on board, 143/8 x 28 inches, gift of William Estler, Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Reproduced courtesy of Bonestell LLC.

Ethics, Values, and Philosophy

Ethical questions permeate nearly every aspect of science and technology, ranging from whether the military should deploy autonomous weapons to how social media companies should handle user data. Some of these dilemmas are global (How will the costs and benefits of climate policies be distributed?) and some are more specific (Who is allowed to compete as a female athlete in world-class athletics?). But they demonstrate that ethics and values are an inescapable component of scientific and technological changes. The essays here unearth the profound ethical and philosophical questions at the heart of these issues.