The transformation of labor markets being swept in by information technology and robotics, as explored in Issues, will challenge society’s ability to adjust. Among possible strategies cited in the New York Times, some observers say the government might provide displaced workers with an unconditional basic income so they can serve as volunteers in socially important areas such as elder care, child care, cultural activities, and environmental protection.
A quartet of scientists and policy analysts recently noted in Issues that little information is available publically on the side-effects of “fracking” to tap oil and gas resources. As something of a cautionary tale, Newsweek has reported that some municipalities in New York and Pennsylvania spray briny wastes from local gas wells on roads to melt winter ice or suppress summer dust, without tracking their use or considering new research that points to their potential health risks.
George Shultz, former secretary of state under President Ronald Reagan, recently argued in the Washington Post that “the globe is warming and that carbon dioxide has something to do with that fact,” adding that deniers “will wind up being mugged by reality” and that his boss would have taken corrective action as an “insurance policy.” In Issues, a scholar of conservative thought has offered details about what an acceptable policy might look like.
In a new book cited by nprEd, an education policy analyst and writer envisions a future in which “the idea of ‘admission’ to college will become an anachronism” as online higher education produces a “University of Everywhere” that will be open to everyone. In Issues, two leading educators have agreed that massive open online courses, or MOOCs, hold great promise, but they argued that the best solution will be to blend the strengths of electronic study with the benefits of the traditional college experience.
With the recent steep fall in oil prices and associated declines in other energy prices, the stars are aligned for adopting a carbon tax on consumption of fossil fuels, Lawrence Summers, a former treasury secretary and presidential adviser, says in the Washington Post. While favoring such a move, two economists have argued in Issues for even broader changes in tax policies, such as ending various energy supply subsidies, to maximize reductions in carbon emissions linked to global climate change.
The United Kingdom has moved toward becoming the first country in the world to authorize a “three-person” in-vitro fertilization technique that combines two parents’ genetic material with that of a third female donor. In Issues, a researcher and a writer have previously joined forces on an essay examining the global bioethical debate that is emerging alongside such revolutionary technological developments.
Despite a widespread impression that the United States is a hotbed of innovation, the past three decades have seen a dramatic slowing in the formation of new companies, says a report in the newest Foreign Affairs. Among various proposed solutions: inviting in more talented immigrants who combine technological prowess with an appetite for entrepreneurial risk. And Issues has provided a detailed blueprint for how to make this happen.
For the first time in at least half a century, a majority of public school students in the United States come from low-income families, according to new federal data reported in the Washington Post. This shift underscores the need cited in Issues to take a more comprehensive approach to improving educational outcomes for low-income students (as well minority students and English learners) and to address the many out-of-school factors that affect their academic performance.
The Politico news group recently sketched out the insider maneuverings when all but one of the Republicans in the U.S. Senate voted to acknowledge that climate change is real, though they balked at tying rising global temperatures to human activities. So what should be done? In Issues, a scholar of conservative thought has written that whatever policies are developed to address climate change, they must be compatible with individual liberty and democratic institutions, and cannot rely on coercive or unaccountable bureaucratic administration.
The behavioral and social sciences have helped shape public policies in many diverse areas, but their contributions are not always apparent to the broader science community or the public, two leading analysts have pointed out in Issues. For example, the Washington Post reports that the military is increasingly turning to psychology and the behavioral sciences to find ways of saving energy, and the “opportunities that we see. . . are phenomenal,” says one specialist in the Pentagon.
Just as an economic analyst recently reported in Issues how advances in artificial intelligence and robotics may eliminate or modify many types of jobs in the United States, a study cited in the Global Post predicts that a new wave of robots and computerization may take half or more jobs, especially among the white-collar workforce, in Germany and elsewhere across Europe. But at the same time, the European Union is investing heavily to speed up the development of robotics, convinced that the net result will be creation of many more new jobs across a variety of fields.
A quartet of authors has argued in Issues that the United States should continue its push to commercialize electric vehicles until at least 2017, when a review of federal auto policies is scheduled. China seems to be following an even more aggressive route, as the government recently announced plans to extend its current incentives for electric cars until 2020, while also reducing subsidies for traditional vehicles.
Migratory animals face increasingly perilous times, their challenges magnified by their long journeys. Among examples in the recent news, monarch butterflies, which commute annually between North America and Mexico, have just been added for consideration for protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, while elephants, which wander across vast spaces of Africa, were lost in record numbers to poaching last year. But a specialist in the conservation of biodiversity has argued in Issues that timely international action can save many of the great animal migrations, gaining aesthetic, ecological, and economic rewards.
As part of a comprehensive plan to reduce childhood obesity in the United States, an Institute of Medicine report, highlighted in Issues, recommended giving the Federal Trade Commission authority to monitor how the food industry markets its products to kids. The government agreed, and the commission set to work—but Politico says it may now be quitting the job.
Despite the Department of Defense’s history in innovation, it is not practical to look to the military for the kind of transformational energy technologies that will be needed to mitigate climate change, say two analysts on Future Tense. In a more detailed look at this situation, a scholar working at the intersection of national security and economic policy has detailed in Issues how the military faces fundamental limits in driving major energy innovation, adding that it would be better to seek more limited gains by focusing defense-led technology development on energy projects that actually align with military missions.
New research described recently on nprEd shows that some community college degrees or certificates can significantly increase a student’s potential income. In Issues, the head of another major study has reported similar results, adding that some of the patterns observed “are likely to surprise anyone who spends most of his or her life thinking about and working in elite institutions and strong research departments.”
Development of oil and gas resources enabled by fracking is rapidly growing across the United States, but there is little information available to the public on the risks associated with such efforts, according to a recent Issues. Even investors are shortchanged, says a new report, as the majority of oil and gas companies engaged in fracking fail to adequately inform the business community about practices and progress in reducing risks of their operations.
A long-time observer of space policy and history has written in Issues that in charting its future in space, the United States would be wise to heed President John F. Kennedy’s advice and make exploration a cooperative global undertaking. NASA’s chief scientist, Ellen Stofan, recently added a note of agreement, pointing to the roster of countries with growing space capabilities and adding philosophically that “When we go to explore, we do it as a globe.”
In a scene reported by Politico, President Barack Obama recently sat down with some middle school students to write a bit of computer code, to help promote a popular campaign financed by the tech industry to advance education in computer science. But along with examining projected benefits of boosting such educational efforts, Politico also cited an Issues article arguing against the need to train large numbers of new science and technology workers, as their career rewards might be limited and they would mainly serve to help companies keep their costs down.
With the Highway Trust Fund going broke and Congress delaying a long-term fix, California and a handful of other states are considering mileage-based user fees to replace or supplement fuel taxes. In Issues, a longtime California-based civil engineer and urban planner has worked through the advantages of this and several related options for supporting transportation activities.
Using the recent outbreak of Ebola as an example, the World Bank explored in its 2015 World Development Report how advances in understanding human behavior can be used to improve personal and social well-being. Striking the same theme, two leading scholars have argued in Issues that applying the social and behavioral sciences to policy and practices in the United States will be essential to achieving national goals in areas ranging from health care to national security.
Newsweek is out with a major survey of possible ways to modify Earth’s systems to mitigate or avoid human-caused climate change. The prospects and pitfalls of “geoengineering” have also been explored in Issues, with authors offering such pragmatic advice as convening a government advisory committee to guide projects from research to implementation, and making sure that public interests dominate the decision-making process.
NASA recently launched its latest advanced rocket on a mission designed to lead ultimately into deeper space. But in Issues, a long-time observer of science and society has argued that the federal government and its space agency should be looking more actively in a different direction—toward the oceans, which offer more promising solutions to the world’s energy, food, environmental, and other problems.
Canada has awarded a pioneering network of researchers $2.3 million to use yeast, along with several other key organisms, to investigate the molecular mechanisms of rare diseases in search of effective therapies. This reflects in some measure the hope expressed in Issues that science funding agencies and institutions would continue to invest time, infrastructure, and patience into working with this little organism that has so much discovery yet to offer.
Advances in information technology and robotics will transform the labor market over the next few decades in ways that will challenge society’s ability to make timely adjustments, says an exploratory study reported in Issues. One approach to helping workers find a satisfying fit in such a technological future, according to an essay in the Wall Street Journal, is to develop “human-centered automation” that gives the unique talents of people precedence over the useful but limited skills of machines.
President Obama’s recent decision on immigration, whatever its effects, will not address the problems that trouble technology companies the most, including tight limits on temporary visas for high-skilled workers, according to a report in the Los Angeles Times. In Issues, a leading analyst on science and technology policy laid out a comprehensive set of proposals that might offer an effective, achievable, and secure way to streamline the nation’s visa and immigration systems for scientists and engineers.
A new United Nations report has reaffirmed the major role that humans are playing in driving climate change. With the Republicans now in control of the U.S. Congress, the recent Issues article outlining conservative views on climate change may provide some pragmatic advice for designing and implementing therapeutic actions.
A new report from the National Research Council, described in the New York Times, declared that “as a compassionate nation, we rally each time a disaster strikes and provide resources for postdisaster recovery that far exceed those we are willing to provide to manage risk.” In Issues, a strategic planner involved in recovery efforts after Hurricane Sandy pointed out the same problem and offered some practical lessons for breaking out of this default survival strategy.
Noted psychologist Laurence Steinberg recently explored in Issues how adolescents’ brain development may make them more likely than adults to take risks and ignore consequences—and what this should mean for policymakers. In a new book, described on National Public Radio’s website, he expands the discussion, arguing that the nation’s education and legal systems, as well as parenting, have yet to catch up with emerging scientific insights.
Two scientists in Arizona who study the intersection of technology and social change recently examined in Issues the status and prospects of factory-grown meat. Now, a team of chefs, designers, and artists in Amsterdam has published The In Vitro Meat Cookbook, which describes such dishes as “maple-smoked labchops” and “meat fruit tartlets.” The authors explain on the Future Tense blog that they want to help people “visualize a wide range of possible new dishes and food cultures to help us decide what future we actually want.”